EDUCATIONAL DEFINITIONS

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ACT is a college readiness assessment standardized test for high school achievement and college admissions in the United States produced by ACT, Inc. It was first administered in 1959 by Everett Franklin Lindquist as a competitor to the College Board’s Scholastic Aptitude Test, now the SAT Reasoning Test.

Asperger’s Syndrome is a developmental disorder related to autism and characterized by higher than average intellectual ability coupled with impaired social skills and restrictive, repetitive patterns of interest and activities. Asperger Syndrome is often considered a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty interacting socially, repeat behaviors, and clumsiness.

ASVAB or Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery is a multiple choice test, administered by the United States Military Entrance Processing Command, used to determine qualification for enlistment in the United States Armed Forces. It is often offered to American high school students when they are in the 10th, 11th and 12th grade, though anyone eligible for enlistment may take it.

Auditory Processing Disorder, also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is a complex problem affecting about 5% of school-aged children. Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing). They cannot, however, process the information they hear in the same way as others do, which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that these difficulties arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system.

Autism Spectrum Disorder describes a range of conditions classified as pervasive developmental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Pervasive developmental disorders include autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder, and Rett syndrome (although usually only the first three conditions are considered part of the autism spectrum). These disorders are typically characterized by social deficits, communication difficulties, stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and interests, and in some cases, cognitive delays.

Common Core State Standards Initiative is a U.S. education initiative that seeks to bring diverse state curricula into alignment with each other by following the principles of standards-based education reform. The initiative is sponsored by the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO).

GED or General Educational Development tests are a group of five subject tests which, when passed, certify that the taker has American or Canadian high school-level academic skills. Although GED is frequently mistaken as meaning “general education degree” or “general education diploma,” the American Council on Education, which owns the GED® trademark, coined GED to identify “tests of general educational development” that measure proficiency in science, mathematics, social studies, reading, and writing.

GMAT or Graduate Management Admission Test is a computer adaptive test which assesses a person’s analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills in standard written English in preparation for being admitted into a graduate management program, such as an MBA. More than 5,400 programs offered by more than 1,500 universities and institutions in 83 countries use the GMAT exam as part of the selection criteria for their programs site. Business schools use the test as a criterion for admission into a wide range of graduate management programs, including MBA, Master of Accountancy, and Master of Finance programs.

GRE or Graduate Record Examinations is a standardized test that is an admissions requirement for many graduate schools in the United States, in other English-speaking countries, and for English-taught graduate and business programs world-wide. Created and administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS) in 1949, the exam measures verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, analytical writing, and critical thinking skills acquired over a long period of time, but are not related to any specific field of study.

HSEE or High School Entrance Exam is an exam that many educational institutions use to select students for admission. These exams may be administered at any level of education, from primary to higher education, although they are more common at higher levels.

HSPT or High School Placement Test is used to assess readiness and place students into their initial classes. Historically, placement tests also served additional purposes such as providing individual instructors a prediction of each student’s likely academic success, sorting students into homogeneous skill groups within the same course level and introducing students to course material.

Interpreting is the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication, between users of different languages. The process is verbal, unlike translating, which deals with the written application of language interpretation.

Learning Disability, also known as Neurobehavioral Disorder, is a classification including several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. While learning disability, learning disorder and learning difficulty are often used interchangeably, they differ in many ways. Learning disability refers to significant learning problems in an academic area. These problems, however, are not enough to warrant an official diagnosis. Learning disorder, on the other hand, is an official clinical diagnosis, whereby the individual meets certain criteria, as determined by a professional (psychologist, pediatrician, etc.)

Non-verbal Learning Disorder, also called a Nonverbal Learning Disability (NLD or NVLD), is a neurological disorder characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and lower motor, visuo-spatial, and social skills on an IQ test. NLD involves deficits in perception, coordination, socialization, non-verbal problem-solving and understanding of humor, and a well-developed rote memory. Nonverbal learning disorder is a common co-existing disorder in people who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Praxis I is one of a series of American teacher certification exams written and administered by the Educational Testing Service required before, during, and after teacher training courses in the U.S. The Praxis I, or Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST), consists of three exams: reading, writing, and mathematics. In most colleges and universities, a passing score must be earned for admission to teacher education. In most states, a passing score must be earned before the teacher education graduate can apply for his or her teaching license or certificate.

Praxis II is one of a series of American teacher certification exams written and administered by the Educational Testing Service required before, during, and after teacher training courses in the U.S. The Praxis II assessments cover many different subject areas. Each education major requires a different combination of Praxis II exams. In many states, these include a content knowledge and curriculum and instruction exam. In some states, students must pass these exams before being accepted into the student teaching component of the program. Many states use the Praxis II tests as a way to determine highly qualified status under the No Child Left Behind Act. The Praxis II School Counseling specialty exam is used by some states as a licensure requirement to practice professional school counseling.

Psychoeducational Testing is an aid in determining if an individual has a learning disability. A typical assessment takes between four to six hours. Prior to the testing, the psychologist gathers a great deal of background information such as developmental milestones, medical history, school history and family history. A battery of tests assess abilities in math, reading, writing, memory skills, visual motor skills, learning style and whether emotional factors may be affecting learning.

SAT is a standardized test for most college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service, which still administers the exam. The test is intended to assess a student’s readiness for college.

Special Education or special needs education is the education of students with special needs in a way that addresses the students’ individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings, and other interventions designed to help learners with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and community than would be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Common special needs include challenges with learning, communication challenges, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, and developmental disorders.

Translating is the written communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Unlike interpreting (which is verbal), translation began only after the appearance of written literature.